First Amendment of the Bill of Rights: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett
Who was Ida B. Wells? She was an American heroine. She was a teacher, a journalist, a lecturer, and a civil rights activist. She fought for freedom of the press and freedom of speech. She worked to publicize the evils of lynching and fought to stop it. She worked for female suffrage and equal rights for men and women, white and Black.
Ida Bell Wells was born a slave in Holly Springs, Mississippi, on July 16, 1862. When her parents and one of her brothers died in the yellow fever epidemic of 1878, she became a teacher to support herself and her remaining siblings, so the family would not need to be split up among various relatives. She eventually moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where teachers earned better pay, although she still earned less than white teachers.
“On May 4, 1884, a train conductor with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad ordered Wells to give up her seat in the first-class ladies car and move to the smoking car, which was already crowded with other passengers.” She refused, and was forcibly removed from the train. She sued. A local circuit court awarded her $500, but the railroad appealed, and the Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the case.
Wells began writing for newspapers, mostly on racial issues. She became editor and co-owner of the Free Speech and Headlight in 1889. In 1891, she lost her teaching job when the Memphis Board of Education disapproved of her articles criticizing the condition of the “colored” schools in Shelby County. In 1892, she began in earnest the crusade for which she is most famous: publicizing the evils of lynching, and explaining that lynching was not the result of white justice-seekers too impatient to wait for the courts, but of white businessmen and leaders determined to stop African-American economic competition and social improvement. In 1892, Tom Moss, an African-American grocery store owner and a friend of Ida B. Wells, was arrested for defending his store from white vandals. He and his business partners, Calvin McDowell and Will Stewart, were dragged from the jail and murdered by a lynch mob.
Wells not only wrote about her friend’s lynching. She traveled the south for two months, investigating other lynchings and collecting statistics. When she wrote about her findings, especially that lynchings were not the result of Black men raping white women, a mob in Memphis broke into her newspaper office and destroyed her printing press. She was out of Tennessee at the time, and was warned not to return to Memphis. She traveled in the north and the midwest, writing and lecturing about lynching. She went to Europe on a lecture tour.
Unable to return safely to Memphis, she settled in Chicago, where she and Frederick Douglass organized a boycott of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. She, Douglass, Irvine G. Pen, and her future husband, attorney Ferdinand L. Barnett, co-wrote a pamphlet explaining Reasons Why the Colored American Is Not in the World’s Columbian Exposition. More than 20,000 copies of the pamphlet were passed out to visitors to the exposition.
Ida B. Wells married Ferdinand L. Barnett, an African-American lawyer and journalist, in 1895. He was a widower, with two sons by his first wife. He and Ida B. Wells-Barnett (one of the first women to keep her own name after marriage) had four children together.
The Ida B. Wells-Barnett House, a National Historical Landmark in Chicago, IL, is where Ida B. Wells-Barnett and Ferdinand L. Barnett lived from 1919-1930.
In addition to her many newspaper articles and speeches on lynching, Ida B. Wells-Barnett wrote two pamphlets, both of which are out of copyright and available on-line. In Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases, published in 1892, she examined the causes of lynching and suggested that African-Americans use their Second Amendment rights to protect themselves.
The lesson this teaches and which every Afro-American should ponder well, is that a Winchester rifle should have a place of honour in every black home, and it should be used for that protection which the law refuses to give. When the white man who is always the aggressor knows he runs as great a risk of biting the dust every time his Afro-American victim does, he will have greater respect for Afro-American life. The more the Afro-American yields and cringes and begs, the more he has to do so, the more he is insulted, outraged and lynched.
In 1895, she published The Red Record, which examined lynchings since the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. Most white northerners were either unaware or refused to believe how widespread lynching was in the south. Wells-Barnett explained “ten thousand Negroes have been killed in cold blood, without the formality of judicial trial and legal execution” since slavery had ended.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Ida B. Wells-Barnett tried to balance raising her family with fighting against lynching, fighting for women’s suffrage, and working for urban reform for the many African-Americans who were fleeing the dangers and poverty of the south to come to northern cities looking for a better life. She founded the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs and the National Afro-American Council in 1896. In 1909, she helped W. E. B. DuBois found the NAACP. She founded the Negro Fellowship League in 1910. She died in Chicago, March 25, 1931.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Her home in Chicago is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is currently a private home and not open to tours. The Bolling-Gatewood House in Holly Springs, MS, once the home of Spires Bolling, the man who owned her as a child, is now the Ida B. Wells-Barnett Museum. Several schools are named after her, including the Ida B. Wells Academy in Memphis and the Ida B. Wells Preparatory Elementary Academy in Chicago.